Impact modifier for thermoplastic polyolefins

by: Yu, Thomas Chen-Chi; Kay, Peter James; Ouhadi, Trazollah;

The invention relates to a composition of a blend of an ethylene/propylene random copolymer and a low to very low density ethylene/C.sub.4 to C.sub.20 -.alpha.-olefin random copolymer and its use as an impact modifier for polyolefin compositions. The invention further relates to polyolefin compositions, particularly polypropylene compositions, comprising said impact modifier composition.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to a synergistic combination composition comprising an ethylene/propylene random copolymer and a low to very low density ethylene/.alpha.-olefin random copolymer wherein the .alpha.-olefin contains at least 4 carbon atoms. It further relates to polyolefin compositions, in particular polypropylene compositions comprising said synergistic impact modifier combination and a method for improving the impact strength resistance of polyolefin, i.e., the use of said combination as an impact modifier for polyolefins, such as, in particular polypropylene.

2. Description of the Related Art

Crystalline polypropylene is excellent in rigidity, heat resistance, surface gloss, etc., however, the impact resistance of polypropylene is poor and consequently polypropylene is not suitable for many applications.

Various methods have been proposed to improve the impact resistance of polypropylene, for instance, incorporating into crystalline polypropylene modifiers such as polyethylene or rubbery substances, etc. Consequently, a rubbery substance (rubber component), an amorphous or a low crystalline ethylene/propylene random copolymer, polyisobutylene, polybutadiene, etc. are generally used.

In order to improve the impact resistance of polypropylene by incorporation of such a rubbery substance into said polypropylene, however, a large amount of said rubbery substance must be added to the polypropylene. Due to the presence of a large amount of said rubbery substance in the polypropylene composition the impact resistance was in fact improved. However, the rigidity, heat resistance and surface hardness of said compositions was deteriorated. It was proposed in the art to incorporate into said rubbery substance containing polypropylene composition, an inorganic filler such as talc in order to impart rigidity to the compositions.

However, the improvement of the rigidity of a rubbery substance containing polypropylene composition by way of the addition of an inorganic filler is limited.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,591,795 discloses impact modified propylene compositions comprising 60 to 85% by weight of a propylene block copolymer, 10 to 25% by weight of an ethylene/.alpha.-olefin random copolymer rubber prepared by using a vanadium-containing catalyst or a metallocene-containing catalyst and 5 to 15% by weight of an inorganic filler, such as talc. The polypropylene is dispersed in the rubber component, which forms the matrix.

It is an object of the present invention to provide an impact modifier which is most suitable for imparting impact resistance to polyolefin compositions, in particular to polypropylene compositions.

Furthermore, it is an object of the present invention to provide a method for imparting impact resistance to polyolefin compositions, in particular to polypropylene compositions, i.e., using the impact modifier according to the present invention to improve the impact strength of polyolefin compositions, in particular of polypropylene compositions.

As a further object of the present invention there should be provided polyolefin compositions, and in detail, polypropylene compositions being improved in their impact strength.

It goes without saying that the overall object is to achieve a superior balance of the important properties of the resulting polyolefin compositions and in detail of the polypropylene compositions by the impact modifier of the present invention. An excellent impact strength should be achieved, while maintaining a superior balance of the overall properties such as melt flow capability, toughness, rigidity and excellent surface aspect.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It has surprisingly been found that the incorporation of a combination of an ethylene/propylene random copolymer (EP) with a low to very low density ethylene/C.sub.4 to C.sub.20 -.alpha.-olefin random copolymer shows an synergistic effect in the improvement of the impact resistance of polypropylene compositions while maintaining a good balance of the other important properties, such as melt flow, rigidity, heat resistance and surface aspect.

The combination of the two above-mentioned copolymers can be added to the polyolefin to be modified as a blend or independently.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

In detail, in a first aspect the present invention relates to a composition comprising in a blend

(a) 5 to 95% by weight of at least one ethylene/propylene random copolymer, and

(b) 95 to 5% by weight of at least one low to very low density ethylene/C.sub.4 to C.sub.20 -.alpha.-olefin random copolymer, based on the total amount of (a) and (b).

Preferably, the ethylene/propylene random copolymer (a) is present in the impact modifier composition (blend) in an amount of 10 to 90% by weight, most preferably 20 to 80% by weight, based on the total amount of (a) and (b).

It is preferred that the impact modifier blend composition according to the present invention contains 90 to 10% by weight, more preferably 80 to 20% by weight, based on the total amount of (a) and (b), of the low to very low density ethylene/.alpha.-olefin random copolymer (b).

It is to be noted that the above-mentioned ratio of copolymers (a) and (b) is not only applicable for the blend but also if (a) and (b) are added separately to the polypropylene composition to be modified.

1. Ethylene/propylene Random Copolymer

The ethylene/propylene random copolymer (a) contains up to 80 weight %, preferably from 40 to 65 weight % of ethylene, based on the random copolymer (a).

The ethylene/propylene random copolymer (a) may further contain comonomers selected from non-conjugated dienes such as 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB), 1,4-hexadiene, 5-methylene-2-norbornene (MNB), 1,6-octadiene, 5-methyl-1,4-hexadiene, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadiene, 1,3-cyclopentadiene, 1,4-cyclohexadiene, dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and 5-vinylnorbornene.

Said further comonomers may be present in the ethylene/propylene random copolymer (a) in an amount of up to 15 weight %, preferably in an amount of 0.1 to 5.0 weight %, based on the total amount of the ethylene/propylene random copolymer (a).

Preferably, the ethylene/propylene random copolymer (a) has a density of 0.850 to 0.900 g/cm.sup.3 and an intrinsic viscosity [.eta.] in decalin at 135.degree. C. of 1 to 6 dl/g.

2. Low to Very Low Density Ethylene/.alpha.-olefin Random Copolymer

The ethylene/.alpha.-olefin random copolymer (b) present in the impact modifier blend contains the .alpha.-olefin in an amount of at least 5 weight %, preferably from 10 to 40 weight %, most preferably from 15 to 30 weight %, based on the total of the random copolymer (b).

The .alpha.-olefin to be copolymerized with ethylene is selected from monomers containing at least 4, preferably 4 to 20, more preferably 4 to 12 and most preferably 4 to 8 carbon atoms. Preferred monomers are selected from the group consisting of 1-butene, 1-pentene, 1-hexene, 1-heptene, 1-octene, 1-decene, 1-dodecene, 1-hexadodecene and mixtures thereof. Out of these comonomers 1-butene, 1-hexene and 1-octene are most preferred. The .alpha.-olefins may be present in the random copolymer (b) in a combination of at least two.

The ethylene/.alpha.-olefin random copolymer (b) present in the impact modifier composition of the present invention may also contain monomer units derived from monomers other than ethylene and the .alpha.-olefin mentioned above. For instance, units derived from dienes containing 5 to 20 carbon atoms, preferably those selected from the non-conjugated dienes mentioned above in context with copolymer (a), may be contained in the random copolymer (b). Preferably their amount is up to 15 weight %, based on the random copolymer (b).

The ethylene/.alpha.-olefin random copolymer (b) used in the blend according to the present invention preferably has the following physical properties:

a Mooney viscosity ML (1+4) (ASTM D-1646), as measured at 121.degree. C. is from 1 to 50, preferably from 8 to 40,

a density of 0.860 to 0.925 g/cm.sup.3, preferably from 0.865 to 0.910 g/cm.sup.3 and most preferably from 0.865 to 0.900 g/cm.sup.3,

a melt flow index (MFI) according to ASTM D-1238 of from 0.2 to 30 dg/min, preferably from 0.5 to 20 dg/min.

The ethylene/.alpha.-olefin random copolymers (b) can be prepared in a known manner by conventional Ziegler-Natta catalysis or metallocene catalysis. Ethylene/.alpha.-olefin random copolymers prepared by metallocene catalysis are preferred. These methods are in great detail described in the literature to which it is referred herewith.

According to the invention it has surprisingly been found that the combination comprising (a) and (b) has a synergistic effect on the impact strength of the polypropylene composition to be modified. This means that the combination comprising copolymers (a) and (b) can be used to improve the impact strength resistance particularly of polypropylene compositions, at a level higher than expected from each individual blend ingredient (a) or (b).

Preferably the combination of (a) and (b) is added to the polyolefin to be modified as a melt or tumble blend comprising (a) and (b). The tumble blend can be prepared using any of the conventional tumble blender. The melt-blend of (a) and (b) can conveniently be manufactured in a known manner using conventional mixing devices such as a Banbury-mixer, Farrel continuous mixer (FCM), Henschel-mixer, V-blender, single-screw extruder, multiple-screw extruder or kneader. Mixing/blending of the components (a) and (b) is carried out at a temperature between 150 and 260.degree. C., preferably between 150 and 220.degree. C.

What is set out above is also applicable if two or more of copolymers (a) and/or two or more of copolymers (b) are employed.

3. Polypropylene

The polypropylene which is impact modified with the impact modifier blend according to the present invention is a conventional polypropylene and is selected from homopolymer, reactor polypropylene copolymer commonly called block-copolymer and random copolymer.

4. Impact Modified Polypropylene

The present invention also relates to a polypropylene composition comprising

(i) a polypropylene

(ii) a combination of at least one ethylene/propylene random copolymer (a) as defined above, and at least one low to very low density, ethylene/.alpha.-olefin random copolymer (b) as defined above as the impact modifier, and

(iii) optional additives.

The polypropylene (i) is selected from the type of polypropylene mentioned above and the impact modifier (ii) is selected from the combination as defined above comprising at least one ethylene/propylene random copolymer (a) and at least one of the low to very low density ethylene/.alpha.-olefin random copolymer (b).

The optional additives (iii) which may be present in the modified polypropylene composition according to the present invention are selected from the group consisting of inorganic fillers, heat stabilizers, nucleating agents (which include aluminum salts of aromatic carboxylic acid, esters of aromatic phosphoric acid and dibenzylidene sorbitol), ultraviolet absorbers, slip-agents, antistatic agents, flame-retardants, pigments, dyes, inorganic fillers other than finely powdered talc, organic fillers and other polymers, for example, high-density polyethylene, EVA, EMA and EAA.

The inorganic filler mentioned above, which may be present in the impact modified polypropylene compositions according to the present invention, may be selected from finely powdered inorganic materials, for instance talc having an average particle diameter of 0.5 to 20 .mu.m.

The total amount of optional additives may be up to 40% by weight, preferably up to 30% by weight, most preferably between 5 and 20% by weight, based on the total amount of the impact modified polypropylene composition.

The amount of inorganic filler may be up to 40% by weight, preferably up to 30% by weight, most preferably between 5 and 25% by weight, based on the total amount of the impact modified polypropylene composition. The total amount of optional additives including the inorganic filler, however, is not higher than 40% by weight.

The polypropylene composition of the present invention preferably contains from 40 to 96% by weight, preferably from 50 to 90% by weight of polypropylene (i), from 4 to 60% by weight, preferably from 7 to 30% by weight of the inventive impact modifier combination (ii), and from 0 to 40% by weight, preferably from 5 to 25% by weight of the optional additives (iii).

The polypropylene composition of the present invention may be obtained from the components (i), (ii) and optionally (iii) as mentioned above according to conventional known methods for preparing polyolefin compounds (blends), for instance, by feeding the components simultaneously or successively to a mixing device such as a multiple-screw extruder, single-screw extruder, kneader or Banbury mixer or FCM, Henschel mixer or V-blender.

The temperature at which blending is effected is between 150 and 260.degree. C., preferably between 150 and 220.degree. C.

In this context it should be noted that the impact modifier composition can be added to the polypropylene as a blend or individually, i.e., the at least one ethylene/propylene random copolymer (a) separately from the at least one low to very low density ethylene/.alpha.-olefin random copolymer (b).

Injection molded products formed from the polypropylene according to the present invention as described above may be utilized in a wide field of application, such-as for automotive trims, particularly bumpers, instrumental panels, dashboards, etc.

The present invention is illustrated hereinafter in more detail with reference to examples which should not be construed as to limit the scope of the present invention.

EXAMPLES

The following abbreviations are used in the examples:

    Eltex .RTM. PRV 210: reactor propylene copolymer
                       manufacturer: Solvay
                       melt flow index (at 230.degree. C., 2.16 kg load) =
                       9 g/10 min
                       ethylene content = 7 to 9 wt %
    APPRL 3250:        reactor propylene copolymer
                       manufacturer: Appryl
                       melt flow index (230.degree. C., 2.16 kg load) =
                       25 g/10 min
                       ethylene content = 7 to 9 wt %
    Vistalon .RTM. V.785: ethylene/propylene copolymer
                       manufacturer: Exxon Chemical
                       mooney viscosity ML (1 + 4) at 125.degree. C. = 30
                       ethylene content = 53.3 wt %
    Vistalon .RTM. V.606: ethylene/propylene copolymer
                       manufacturer: Exxon Chemical
                       mooney viscosity ML (1 + 4) at 125.degree. C. = 65
    Irganox .RTM. B215: blend of Irgafos .RTM. 168 (2 parts) and
                       Irganox .RTM. 1010 (1 part)
                       manufacturer: Ciba-Geigy
    Talc Steamic 00S:  manufacturer: Talc de Luzenac
    Engage .RTM. 8150: ethylene 1-octene copolymer
                       manufacturer: DuPont Dow Elastomer
                       density (ASTM D-792) = 0.868
                       melt flow index (DIN 53735-88) = 0.5
                       g/10 min
                       comonomer content: 25 weight %
    HDPE NCPE 7004:    high density polyethylene
                       manufacturer: Borealis
                       melt flow index (190.degree. C., 2.16 kg load) =
                       4 g/10 min


The following test-methods were used:
          Izod impact:         ISO 180a
          Charpy impact:       ISO 179a
          Dart drop:           ISO 6603-2 (mass of 25.990 kg,
                               height 1.032 m, hemispherical
                               falling striker)
          E-modulus:           ISO 527/1A
          Stress at yield:     ISO 527/1A
          Elongation at break: ISO 527/1A
          Flexural modulus:    ISO 178









In the following Table 1 the elastomer master-batch compositions comprising the ethylene/propylene random copolymer and the metallocene catalyzed ethylene/1-octene random copolymer (master batch MB2 to MB8 are according to the present invention) are shown:

                                                            TABLE 1
                                              Elastomer Master Batch
     Composition
    Elastomer master batch  Elastomer   Elastomer   Elastomer   Elastomer
     Elastomer     Elastomer     Elastomer     Elastomer
    composition             MB1*         MB2         MB3         MB4
     MB5           MB6           MB7           MB8
    Vistalon V.606        66.6 wt %
    Vistalon V.785                      80 wt %     75 wt %     70 wt %
     60 wt %       50 wt %       40 wt %       30 wt %
    NCPE (HDPE) 7004      33.3 wt %
    Engage 8150                       19.9 wt %   24.9 wt %   29.9 wt %
     39.9 wt %     49.9 wt %     59.9 wt %     69.9 wt %
    Irganox B 215          0.1 wt %    0.1 wt %    0.1 wt %    0.1 wt %
     0.1 wt %      0.1 wt %      0.1 wt %      0.1 wt %
    *Comparative


A-Preparation of the Blend

1. Preparation of the Impact Modifier Master-batch

The ethylene/propylene random copolymer is premixed with the ethylene/.alpha.-olefin random copolymer for master-batch MB1, examples of the invention and with a high density poly-ethylene for the reference example.

These blends designated elastomer master batches MB1 to MB8 for the purposes of exemplifying the invention are melt mixed in a 1.3 liter internal Banbury mixer.

Mixing volume: 1.1 liter

Mixing temperature: 180 to 200.degree. C.

Rotor speed: 155 rpm

Mixing time: 4 minutes

2. Blend with Polypropylene

Polypropylene and the impact modifier (master batch MB1 to MB8) and other ingredients like talc and stabilizer are melt mixed in an internal 2.8 liter Banbury mixer. The volume used was about 2.6 liters. The compositions are summarized in Table 2 below.

Mixing temperature: 180 to 200.degree. C.

Rotor speed: 130 rpm

Mixing time: 6 minutes

The final compound is granulated by using a Sigitta band granulator Type GR 250 SL. The granulates of the final polypropylene blend compound is then fed into a laboratory single-screw extruder (type 832001, Brabender) with a screw of a L/D-ratio=25 (D=19 mm), followed by under-water pelletizing.

B-Preparation of the test-specimen

All the test-specimens were prepared by injection-molding of the tested products into molds which correspond to the used norms as mentioned in the following Tables 2 and 3.

The molding machine was a Engel ES500/125 HL with 125 tons claming force. Typical injection molding conditions are:

Temperature profile:

zone 1 (nozzle): 210.degree. C.

zone 2: 210.degree. C.

zone 3: 190.degree. C.

zone 4: 190.degree. C.

mold 30.degree. C.

injection pressure (bar): 43.5

Injection speed (mm/s): 50

Injection time(s): 0.60

Second pressure: (bar): 32

Second pressure time(s): 15

Cooling time(s): 30

Plastification (mm): 40

Back pressure (bar): 5

The results obtained are shown in the following Tables 2 and 3, respectively. Examples 1, 2, 3, 11 and 12 are comparative examples, i.e., not according to the invention.

                                    TABLE 2
                                  Example 1*    Example 2*    Example 3*
     Example 4     Example 5
    Impact Modified PP Composition
    Eltex PRV 210                   70 wt %       70 wt %       70 wt %
     70 wt %       70 wt %
    Vistalon V.785                  20 wt %
    Elastomer MB1                                 20 wt %
    Engage 8150                                                 20 wt %
    Elastomer MB2
     20 wt %
    Elastomer MB3
                 20 wt %
    Elastomer MB4
    Elastomer MB5
    Elastomer MB6
    Elastomer MB7
    Elastomer MB8
    Talc Staemic 00S               9.9 wt %      9.9 wt %      9.9 wt %
     9.9 wt %      9.9 wt %
    Irganox B215                   0.1 wt %      0.1 wt %      0.1 wt %
     0.1 wt %      0.1 wt %
    Physical Properties:
    E-Modulus (MPa)                  1353          1399          1414
     1239          1283
    Stress at Yield (MPa)             17.4          18.5          19.1
     16.6          17.4
    Stress at Break (MPa)             13.4          14.5          16.8
     14.5          14.2
    Elongation at Break (%)           140           74          >170
     >170       >170
    Flexural Modulus (MPa)           1365          1347          1433
     1282          1173
    Impact Properties:
    IZOD Impact:
    Notched -10.degree. C. (kJ/m.sup.2)  17.4 B        11.6 B        14.9 B
          44 D (2/5)  35.9 D (5/5)
    Notched -20.degree. C. (kJ/m.sup.2)  12.1 B        10.0 B         8.9 B
        16.9 B        13.1 B
    CHARPY Impact:
    Notched -10.degree. C. (kJ/m.sup.2)  21.6 D (1/5)  12.1 B        13.1 B
        28.9 D (4/5)  26.9 D (4/5)
    Notched -20.degree. C. (kJ/m.sup.2)   8.7 B         8.2 B         7.3 B
        14.2 B        16.5 B
    Dark Drop -20.degree. C.:
    E at F. max (J)                   33            35            34
     37            33
    (Initiator)                       60            67            66
     73            62
    E total (J)                       27            31            32
     35            29
    E propagation (J)                  5.4           5.6           5.3
      6.2           5.5
    Time (total) (mil. sec)         D (5/5)       D (5/5)       D (5/5)       D
     (5/5)       D (5/5)
    Observation
    Dart Drop -30.degree. C.:
    E at F. max (J)                   35            37            39
     39            42
    (Initiation)                      64            65            66
     73            79
    E total (J)                       29            28            27
     35            37
    E propagation (J)                  5             4.4           4.5
      5.5           5.9
    Time (total) (mil. sec)         D (4/5)          B             B          D
     (4/5)       D (5/5)
    Observation
    Dart Drop -40.degree. C.:
    E at F. max (J)                   37
     38            39
    (Initiation)                      65
     68            71
    E total (J)                       28
     30            32
    E propagation (J)                  4.6
      4.8           5
    Time (total) (mil. sec)            B
      B          D (1/5)
    Observation
    MFI (g/10 min)                     5.5           4.5           4.7
      5.8           6.8
    (230.degree. C.; 2.16 kg)
                                   Example 6     Example 7     Example 8
     Example 9    Example 10
    Impact Modified PP Composition
    Eltex PRV 210                   70 wt %       70 wt %       70 wt %
     70 wt %       70 wt %
    Vistalon V.785
    Elastomer MB1
    Engage 8150
    Elastomer MB2
    Elastomer MB3
    Elastomer MB4                   20 wt %
    Elastomer MB5                                 20 wt %
    Elastomer MB6                                               20 wt %
    Elastomer MB7
     20 wt %
    Elastomer MB8
                 20 wt %
    Talc Staemic 00S               9.9 wt %      9.9 wt %      9.9 wt %
     9.9 wt %      9.9 wt %
    Irganox B215                   0.1 wt %      0.1 wt %      0.1 wt %
     0.1 wt %      0.1 wt %
    Physical Properties:
    E-Modulus (MPa)                  1268          1245          1184
     1189          1447
    Stress at Yield (MPa)             17.1          16.9          17.5
     17.7          17.6
    Stress at Break (MPa)             14.8          15.1          15.1
     15.3          15.3
    Elongation at Break (%)         >170       >170       >170
     >170       >170
    Flexural Modulus (MPa)           1262          1293          1206
     1234          1206
    Impact Properties:
    IZOD Impact:
    Notched -10.degree. C. (kJ/m.sup.2)  36.3 D (2/5)  23.4 B        19.4 B
        20.1 B          22 B
    Notched -20.degree. C. (kJ/m.sup.2)  18.3 B        14.2 B        12.3 B
        10.8 B        10.9 B
    CHARPY Impact:
    Notched -10.degree. C. (kJ/m.sup.2)  27.2 D (4/5)  24.9 D (3/5)    23 D
     (3/5)    22 D (2/5)  26.9 D (4/5)
    Notched -20.degree. C. (kJ/m.sup.2)  14.0 B        12.6 B        10.4 B
        12.6 B        10.9 B
    Dark Drop -20.degree. C.:
    E at F. max (J)                   33            34            33
     34            34
    (Initiator)                       64            64            64
     64            65
    E total (J)                       32            30            31
     30            31
    E propagation (J)                  5.9           5.8           5.7
      5.8           5.6
    Time (total) (mil. sec)         D (5/5)       D (5/5)       D (5/5)       D
     (5/5)       D (5/5)
    Observation
    Dark Drop -30.degree. C.:
    E at F. max (J)                   36            36            37
     35            36
    (Initiation)                      66            67            70
     69            72
    E total (J)                       30            31            33
     34            36
    E propagation (J)                  4.9           5.2           5.6
      5.4           5.5
    Time (total) (mil. sec)         D (3/5)       D (4/5)       D (4/5)       D
     (2/5)       D (1/5)
    Observation
    Dark Drop -40.degree. C.:
    E at F. max (J)                   38            39            39
     41            40
    (Initiation)                      68            70            77
     76            74
    E total (J)                       30            31            36
     35            34
    E propagation (J)                  4.6           4.8           5.2
      4.9           4.7
    Time (total) (mil. sec)            B             B          D (2/5)
      B             B
    Observation
    MFI (g/10 min)                     5             6             5.1
      4.8           5
    (230.degree. C.; 2.16 kg)
    Note:
    B: brittle failure
    D: ductile failure
    D (X/Y): X = number of the non-broken sample
    Y = total number of samples tested
    *: comparative


TABLE 3 Example 11* Example 12* Example 13 Example 14 Impact Modified PP Composition Appyl 3250 MR5 70 wt % 70 wt % 70 wt % 70 wt % Engage 8150 20 wt % Elastomer MB1 20 wt % Elastomer MB2 20 wt % Elastomer MB4 20 wt % Elastomer MB5 Elastomer MB6 Elastomer MB7 Elastomer MB8 Talc Staemic 00S 9.9 wt % 9.9 wt % 9.9 wt % 9.9 wt % Irganox B215 0.1 wt % 0.1 wt % 0.1 wt % 0.1 wt % Physical Properties: E-Modulus (MPa) 1295 1262 1269 1073 Stress at Yield (MPa) 18.9 17.5 17.3 16.9 Stress at Break (MPa) 15.2 13.7 14 14.1 Elongation at Break (%) 176 72 122 >177 Flexural Modulus (MPa) 1293 1262 1061 1149 Impact Properties: IZOD Impact: Notched -10.degree. C. (kJ/m.sup.2) 6.8 B 7.9 B 10.3 B 9.9 B Notched -20.degree. C. (kJ/m.sup.2) 6.7 B 7.3 B 8.6 B 8.9 B CHARPY Impact: Notched -10.degree. C. (kJ/m.sup.2) 7.3 B 7.8 B 9.7 B 10.2 B Notched -20.degree. C. (kJ/m.sup.2) 6.4 B 7 B 8.9 B 6.4 B Dark Drop -20.degree. C.: E at F. max (J) 33 36 34 33 (Initiator) 64 54 64 63 E total (J) 31 18 30 30 E propagation (J) 5 4.2 5.4 5.5 Time (total) (mil. sec) D (2/5) D (1/3) D (3/5) D (5/5) Observation Dark Drop -30.degree. C.: E at F. max (J) 38 38 40 38 (Initiation) 69 50 74 70 E total (J) 31 12 34 32 E propagation (J) 4.9 3.5 5.4 5.3 Time (total) (mil. sec) B B D (3/5) D (4/5) Observation Dark Drop -40.degree. C.: E at F. max (J) 42 39 (Initiation) 65 73 E total (J) 23 35 E propagation (J) 4 5 Time (total) (mil. sec) B D (2/5) Observation MFI (g/10 min) 12 10.5 16.2 12.2 (230.degree. C.; 2.16 kg) Example 15 Example 16 Example 17 Example 18 Impact Modified PP Composition Appyl 3250 MR5 70 wt % 70 wt % 70 wt % 70 wt % Engage 8150 Elastomer MB1 Elastomer MB2 Elastomer MB4 Elastomer MB5 20 wt % Elastomer MB6 20 wt % Elastomer MB7 20 wt % Elastomer MB8 20 wt % Talc Staemic OOS 9.9 wt % 9.9 wt % 9.9 wt % 9.9 wt % Irganox B215 0.1 wt % 0.1 wt % 0.1 wt % 0.1 wt % Physical Properties: E-Modulus (MPa) 1197 1090 1101 1097 Stress at Yield (MPa) 17.6 17.5 17.5 17.7 Stress at Break (MPa) 13.9 14 14.3 14.5 Elongation at Break (%) >177 >177 >177 >177 Flexural Modulus (MPa) 1192 1102 1122 1113 Impact Properties: IZOD Impact: Notched -10.degree. C. (kJ/m.sup.2) 9.4 B 9.7 B 10 B 8.5 B Notched -20.degree. C. (kJ/m.sup.2) 6.3 B 8.1 B 8 B 7.9 B CHARPY Impact: Notched -10.degree. C. (kJ/m.sup.2) 9.1 B 9.7 B 9.4 B 8.8 B Notched -20.degree. C. (kJ/m.sup.2) 7.6 B 8.4 B 8.3 B 7.5 B Dark Drop -20.degree. C.: E at F. max (J) 34 34 34 35 (Initiator) 64 65 64 69 E total (J) 30 31 30 34 E propagation (J) 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.9 Time (total) (mil. sec) D (4/5) D (4/5) D (3/5) D (5/5) Observation Dark Drop -30.degree. C.: E at F. max (J) 38 35 37 39 (Initiation) 73 63 71 76 E total (J) 35 28 34 37 E propagation (J) 5.4 4.9 5.4 5.7 Time (total) (mil. sec) D (4/5) D (3/5) D (2/4) D (4/5) Observation Dark Drop -40.degree. C.: E at F. max (J) 38 40 40 35 (Initiation) 70 71 75 52 E total (J) 32 31 35 17 E propagation (J) 4.8 4.7 4.9 3.5 Time (total) (mil. sec) D (1/5) D (1/5) B B Observation MFI (g/10 min) 12.4 12.8 12.1 13.3 (230.degree. C.; 2.16 kg) Note: B: brittle failure D: ductile failure D (X/Y): X = number of the non-broken sample Y = total number of samples tested *: comparative

Powder dividing device for camera

Simultaneous telecommunication between radio stations

Hollow fiber separatory device

Dual chamber water filter

Reversible code compander

Decoupled integrated circuit package

Clothes hanger

Drain-extended MOS ESD protection structure

Variable delivery compressor

Impact-resisting composites

Capacitive pressure transducer

Paint toning machine

Movement detector

Splash guard

Facsimile compression for transmission

Selective hydrogenation of olefins

Article transferring apparatus

Gypsum-cement system for construction materials

Method of fabricating electronic circuits

Fluid flow reversing apparatus

Electromechanical preparation of photoengraving cylinders

Outdoor enclosure with heated desiccant

Plain bearing

Electronic voting machine

Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

Developer powder supply cartridge

Manual floor sweeper

Automated nut-cracking apparatus and method

Thermosensitive recording sheet

Substitute milk fat compositions

Flash memory device

Power converter device

Baby blanket

Elongated flexible detonating device

Gravity particle separator

Surface modifier composition

Mower deck bumper

Antimicrobial cationic peptides

Magnetic blanket for horses

Front vehicle body structure

4-Aminoaliphatic-2,3,5,6-[dibenzobicyclo[5.1.0]octanes] and salts thereof

Printer control system

Oscillator circuit

Laterally supported flexible sign

Intraocular lens

DNA sequence encoding N-acetyl-galactosamine-transferase

Magnetic domain propagation register

Incontinence electrode apparatus

Plastic orientation measurement instrument

Facial sun block mask

Snap fastening device

Aqueous coating composition

Digital character display

Arrangement for moving an object

X-ray lens

Portable foldable splint

Liquid container

High temperature diesel deposit tester

Hard surface detergent composition

Cover connecting mechanism

Output regulator

Water filtration assembly

Soybean cultivar 40064423

Simultaneous production of higher chloromethanes

Automatic reversal mechanism

Inter-LAN connection method using ISDN

Support for a torch

Polysaccharides and preparation thereof

Process for coating glass

Naso-gastric tube retainer

Modular station platform construction kit

Wheelchair motorizing apparatus

Fuel system for multicylinder engines

Preparation of star polymers

Screw

Ribbed clothlike nonwoven fabric

Fishing hooking device

Control means for ground hydrants

Brake pressure control valve

Fuel system

Stabilized throttle control system

Digital phase comparison apparatus

Pulse width modulation operation circuit

Solar thermal propulsion unit

Cotton gin control

Method for purifying acetone

Thread wound golf ball

Cervical traction device

Isothiazole and isoxazole sulphoxides

Device in clearing saws

Optical fiber strain relief device