Lubricant and lubricant concentrate

by: Froeschmann, Erasmus;

Lubricant or lubricant concentrate on mineral oil and/or synthetic oil basis having improved lubricating properties, in particular improved load bearing, sliding and corrosion inhibiting properties, which contains a) one or more mineral oils and/or synthetic oils as base oil and b) at least one tetravalent to octavalent alcohol having at least one quaternary carbon atom as well as at least one ester bond in its molecule and having a density d.sub.20 of at least 0,900 and an enthalpy H of at least 350 kcal/kg, c) at least one asymmetric organometallic compound, d) at least one phosphor containing substance, e) at least one sulfur-containing substance and f) further usual additives.

DESCRIPTION

The present invention refers to a novel lubricant (lubricating agent) or lubricant concentrate on a mineral oil and/or synthetic oil base having improved lubricating properties, in particular improved load bearing, sliding or gliding as well as corrosion preventing properties.

During the last decades numerous processes and lubricating systems have been developed in order to reduce the friction and wear of moving machine parts and to lower the costs for energy and replacement parts and to extend the service life of lubricants and of materials. As an ideal lubricant the "lifetime lubricant" is considered which takes into account the ecological requirements becoming more and more restrictive.

On the way to longlife and high duty lubricants, lubricating systems and lubricating processes in the first step the so-called chemical wear lubrication has been developed. By using it the metal-to-metal contact could be largely prevented by means of salt formation on the surfaces of the micro-mountains of the moving parts by forming chemically reactive cover coats on the surfaces or by introducing chemically reactive compounds into the base lubricants. In this manner the seizing of the machine parts could be prevented. But simultaneously wear by shearing of the salt coats between the metal parts moving against one another has been promoted. The service life of the materials therefore remained relatively short. In a further step solid lubricants have been developed which were introduced between the moving metal parts such as graphite, MoS.sub.2, TiO.sub.2, Ca3(PO.sub.4).sub.2, teflon etc., which were introduced in the form of lubricating cover coats, suspensions, pastes or fats. In this way the frictional parts were better separated from each other and their loadability was increased. However, the solid lubricants and base media are separated from each other sooner or later under the influence of centripetal movements of higher circumference speeds and at a higher temperature due to their different specific densities. The longlife lubrication is limited thereby. In a further step the deposition of suitable metal cations out of chemical complexes dissolved in a lubricant onto the frictionating surfaces in operation has been achieved. There under the pressure and the temperature of the frictionating parts they form eutectica together with the metal border layers, which fill up and smoothen the rough valleys and flatten in part tribochemically in part microplastically the peaks. The anionic part of the organometallic compounds forms in situ, lubricating and adhering reaction layers on the newly rebuilt eutectoid frictional faces.

Besides a starting phase which is too long, a friction coefficient and a wear which are too high, control of the reaction proceeding is a problem with these lubricating systems. Either material-independent eutectica and reaction layers are achieved which do not function sufficiently as agents for removing the minute unevennesses due to the preparation of the workpieces in narrow fittings, in these places overload areas and resulting metal breaks occur at the sliding faces, or the aggressive component of the organometallic compounds is strengthened and this results in the phase of chemical wear lubrication, leading to too high removing rates and to a too short service life.

For example, from DE-PS 941 678 lubricating oils having a content of soluble reaction products of phosphorus pentasulfide and liquid or solid aliphatic hydrocarbons or terpene hydrocarbons are known. From DE-PS 923 984 there is known a lubricating oil which contains the metal containing alkylphenolsulfide esters in combination with zinc sulfonates. From DE-AS 1 444 892 there is known a lubricating oil which contains a salt of an aromatic zinc dithiophosphate and a zinc carboxylic acid salt in the presence of water. While both formerly stated products are lubricating oil detergents the latter product is said to prevent the corrosion of silver bearing surfaces. From DE-AS 1 296 730 there is known a lubricating oil which contains a substituted succinic acid optionally together with a salt of an alkylated or esterified phosphoric acid. This product is an antioxidant functioning as detergent. From DE-AS 1 271 878 there is known a combination of dithiophosphate and dithiophosphinate salts. From DE-OS 15 94 555 there are known cutting oils which contain free sulfur, a dialkyldithiophosphate and a chlorinated hydrocarbon. In U.S. Pat. No. 3,462,367 lubricating oils containing a zinc or antimony dithiocarbamate are disclosed. From U.S. Pat. No. 2,758,087 lubricating oils are known, containing a sulfur-phosphorus-compound prepared by reacting phosphorus pentasulfide with an olefin at a higher temperature, and zinc phthalate. However, all these known lubricating oil additives do not fulfill the requirements of today, in particular they lead to heavy oxidic deposits in the area of the lubricating place and cause a wear which is too high.

From U.S. Pat. No. 2,734,865 it is known to use a lubricating oil additive which is formed of a dithiophosphate of the alkaline earth metal salts in combination with a complex reaction product of phosphorus sulfides, tallow oil fatty acid alcohol esters, zinc chloride and barium hydroxide. The friction coefficients and wear values which can be achieved therewith are too high for requirements of today and furthermore the face pressure value is too low. From U.S. Pat. No. 2,734,864 lubricating oil additives are known which are formed of a dithiophosphate of the alkaline earth metals in combination with a complex reaction product of phosphorus sulfides, wool fat and alcohol esters. The undefined product contains substantial amounts of barium and zinc. Such a lubricating oil additive is not usable in practice because of its unbearable odor which also jeopardizes the health of the operators in contact with it. From DE-PS 1 954 452 lubricants on mineral oil and synthetic oil-basis are known which contain besides the mineral oil or synthetic oil as additives an ester of an epoxidized fatty acid having 10 to 18 C-atoms and of a monovalent or multivalent alcohol, an alkyl, aralkyl or aryldithiophosphate of zinc, lead, tin, tungsten, molybdenum, niobium or lanthanum, and optionally a sulfur-phosphorus-compound. From DE-PS 2 108 780 lubricants on the basis of a mineral oil or synthetic oil and lubricant concentrates, respectively, are known which besides a lead, tungsten, molybdenum and/or vanadium dithiophosphate esterified with alkyl, aryl or aralkyl groups contain in addition at least one zinc dialkyldithiophosphate compound and a sulfur-phosphorus-compound which is free of a metal. Also these latter lubricants which have found a widespread use, no longer fulfill all requirements of modern longlife and high duty lubricants. Their friction coefficient and wear are too high, their storage resistance is insufficient, their longlife use leads to a too high reclamation quote in the lubricant field.

The object of the present invention is to provide a novel lubricant (lubricating agent) or lubricant concentrate on a mineral oil or synthetic oil basis having improved lubricating properties, in particular improved friction and wear properties and reduces sensibly the need of energy and replacement parts and meets the highest requirements.

It has now been found that this object according to the present invention can be surprisingly reached by adding at least one tetravalent to octavalent alcohol containing in its molecule at least one quaternary carbon atom and at least one ester bond and having a density d.sub.20 of at least 0,900 and an enthalpy H of at least 350 kcal/kg, (measured at 298.degree. K. and at a pressure equal to one atmosphere at sea level) at least one asymmetric organometallic compound, at least one phosphorus containing substance and at least one sulfur containing substance to a mineral oil and/or synthetic oil besides the usual additives.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1A depicts a wear profile produced in the presence of lubricant A of Example 1.

FIG. 1B depicts a wear profile produced in the presence of lubricant A' of Example 1.

FIG. 2A depicts a wear profile produced in the presence of lubricant B of Example 2.

FIG. 2B depicts a wear profile produced in the presence of lubricant B' of Example 2.

FIG. 3A depicts a wear profile produced in the presence of lubricant C of Example 3.

FIG. 3B depicts a wear profile produced in the presence of lubricant C' of Example 3.

FIG. 4A depicts a wear profile produced in the presence of lubricant D of Example 4.

FIG. 4B depicts a wear profile produced in the presence of lubricant D' of Example 4.

FIG. 5A depicts a wear profile produced in the presence of lubricant E of Example 5.

FIG. 5B depicts a wear profile produced in the presence of lubricant E' of Example 5.

FIG. 6A depicts a wear profile produced in the presence of lubricant F of Example 6.

FIG. 6B depicts a wear profile produced in the presence of lubricant F of Example 6.

The subject of the present invention is a novel lubricant or lubrical concentrate on mineral oil and/or synthetic oil basis which is characterized in that it contains

a) one or more mineral oils and/or synthetic oils as base oil and

b) at least one tetravalent to octavalent alcohol having at least one quaternary carbon atom as well as at least one ester bond in its molecule and having a density d.sub.20 of at least 0,900 and an enthalpy H of at least 350 kcal/kg, at 298.degree. K/1 atm.

c) at least one asymmetric organometallic compound,

d) at least one phosphor containing substance,

e) at least one sulfur containing substance and

f) further usual additives such as oxidation inhibitors.

The lubricants and lubricant concentrates of the invention are superior to the known lubricants and lubricant concentrates in particular in regard to their friction and wear properties and reduce substantially the need of energy and replacement parts. It is assumed that this is due to the fact that by their use in the friction and slide areas metallic glass surfaces consisting of amorphous solidified metal melts are formed which do not exhibit any metal crystal lattice structures. The glass-like smooth friction and sliding surfaces which are believed to be formed by using the lubricants or lubricant concentrates of the present invention improve substantially the whole lubricating process since the friction coefficient and the wear, the oxidation and the corrosion are reduced substantially. Also the so-called fitting-rust is prevented by the lubricant and lubricant concentrate of the invention. In addition, the lubricants and lubricant concentrates of the invention are non-polluting since they do not contain any lead, no sulfur containing whale sperm oil and almost no phosphorus. This has been shown in fish tests and bacterial cultivation tests which have been carried out with the lubricants and lubricant concentrates of the invention. Furthermore, it has been shown that they are degradable biologically in normal soil within 3 to 4 months to an extent of 60%. Thus, they can be considered as extremely non-polluting. In particular they are suited for the use in homokinetic joints for vehicles, i.e. small joints subject to a high number of revolutions and a high load, and they are more similar to the ideal lubricant "lifetime lubricant" than all other already known lubricants. Additionally, the polyolester compounds having quaternary carbon atoms which are used according to the present invention have a significant thermal stability and enable the utilization of high operating temperatures of up to 300.degree. C. They offer the possibility to use them as lifetime lubrication of high duty engines, turbines, roller bearings, synchronizing joints and other high duty machine elements.

The expression "lubricant or lubricant concentrate on mineral oil and/or synthetic oil basis" used in the present application is meant to comprise lubricating oils as well as lubricating fats on mineral oil and/or synthetic oil base.

The expression "quaternary carbon atoms containing compounds" used here is meant to comprise those compounds wherein the 4 main valences of at least one carbon atom per molecule are each substituted by 4 carbon atoms. Examples for such compounds are monomeric, dimeric and trimeric pentaerythritol esters, other polyolesters, pentaerythritol ethoxyesters as well as telomeric acid pentaerythritol esters and the corresponding ethoxylated esters.

As can be seen from the following examples below, the lubricants and lubricant concentrates of the invention have substantially improved properties compared with the known lubricant and lubricant concentrates. The glass-like smooth friction and sliding faces formed by the lubricant of the invention save driving energy and reduce the friction coefficient per se and also by the formation of a very well adhering boundary lubricating film which enables elastohydrodynamic lubrication with a point-like load. This results in a lowering of the friction temperature of the lubricant and of the lubricated place, in an extension of the oxidation resistance of both and the metallic friction partners are less subjected to specific change-load and temperature stresses.

In summary, the wear is lowered by these effects and the service life of the friction partners and of the lubricant is extended. According to the present invention these improvements are achieved within a very broad viscosity range so that now oils having a low viscosity can also be used in those fields where until now the use of oils having high or intermediate viscosity values have been considered as being indispensable, for example in gears, differential gears, or gears of turbines. In addition the thermal stability of the lubricant and lubricant concentrate of the invention allows its use in lubricating places subjected to high operation temperatures, such as in Diesel engines and aircraft turbines.

According to a preferred embodiment of the invention the lubricant or lubricant concentrate contains as component (b) a mono-, di- or tripentaerythritol the hydroxyl group(s) of which is (are) esterified or ethoxyesterified by a straight or branched alkyl, aralkyl or aryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms, preferably 6 to 12 carbon atoms, especially 8 to 12 carbon atoms.

According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention it contains as component (b) a mono-, di- or tetraester of pentaerythritol.

According to a preferred embodiment of the invention the lubricant or lubricant concentrate of the invention contains additionally a component having at least one free hydroxyl, group such as a sterically hindered phenol.

According to a preferred embodiment of the invention the lubricant or lubricant concentrate contains the component (b) in an amount of from 0,1 to 40% by weight, preferable 0,1 to 20% by weight, in particular 1 to 12% by weight, especially 2 to 6% by weight, based on the weight of the mineral oil and/or synthetic oil.

According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention the lubricant or lubricant concentrate of the invention contains as component (b) an ester derivative and/or an ethoxylated ester derivative of mono-, di- or tripenta- erythritol and/or a telomeric acid pentaerythritol ester or an ethoxylated derivative thereof. The lubricant or lubricant concentrate of the invention contains as base oil preferably beet oil, natural oil and/or a synthetic oil having a viscosity in the range of from 1,0 mPa.s at 20.degree. C. to 2.10.sup.6 mPa.s at 20.degree. C. Particularly preferred is the use of a mineral oil having a viscosity of from 1,0 mPa.s at 20.degree. C. to 540 mPa.s at 50.degree. C. as natural oil and the use of an aromatic or aliphatic dicarboxylic acid ester, in particular of a poly-.alpha.-olefin-dicarboxylic acid ester, especially -butylester, having a molecular weight in the range of from 1000 to 3000, preferably the use of phthalic acid diisodecylester, trimethyladipic acid didecylester and sebacic acid dioctylester, a polyisobutylene having a molecular weight of from 1000 to 100 000 and a viscosity of from 200 to 43 000 mPa.s at 100.degree. C., of a polymethacrylate having a viscosity of 1000 mPa.s at 100.degree. C., of a water insoluble polyglycol having a viscosity of from 5 to 60 mPa.s at 100.degree. C., of an isoparaffin oil and/or alkylbenzene having an inflammation point of more than 50.degree. C. and a viscosity in the range of from 1,0 mPa.s at 20.degree. C. to 2 000 000 mPa.s at 20.degree. C. and of a telomeric acid ester, preferable a neopentylglycol and/or trimethylolpropane ester of the telomeric acid.

As further additive the lubricant or lubricant concentrate of the invention preferably contains a sulfur containing substance, in particular a thiazole, at least one metaldialkyldithiocarbamate and/or a metaldialkyldithiophosphate and/or a phosphorus containing substance, in particular an organophosphite, preferably a dialkylarylphosphite, especially didecylphenylphosphite or didodecylphenylphosphite and/or a metaldialkyldithiophosphate.

The sulfur containing substance preferably is contained in the lubricant or lubricant concentrate of the invention in an amount of from 0,5 to 10 % by weight, expecially 1 to 3% by weight, while it contains the phosphorus containing substance preferably in an amount of 0,1 to 10 % by weight, in particular in an amount of 0,1 to 5 % by weight, especially 0,5 to 2 % by weight.

According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention the lubricant or lubricant concentrate can contain usual antioxidants, metaldeactivators, detergents, dispersants, antifoam agents and/or viscosity index improving agents.

The additives of the invention can be added as single compounds or in the form of a composition as a concentrate to the base medium (base oil or base fat) in the above stated amounts.

Further features and advantages of the invention can be seen from the following description of the invention. The polyolester compounds having at least one quaternary carbon atom in the molecule and which are preferably used according to the present invention can comprise the following groups of compounds:

a) mono-, di- and tripentaerythritol esters and their ethoxylated ester derivatives

The basic mono- and dipentaerythritol has the following structure ##STR1## wherein the hydroxyl groups are esterified in part or completely and the ester groups thereof preferably contain straight or branched alkyl, aralkyl or aryl groups having 6 to 18, preferably 8 to 12 carbon atoms.

These compounds can be easily prepared and many representatives of these compounds are commercially available, f.i. from Ciba-Geigy under the tradename REOLUBE LP 3600 (a pentaerythritol tetrapelargonate), REOLUBE LPE 504 (a pentaerythritol tetraoctylester), REOLUBE LPE 602 (a pentaerythritol tetraheptylester), from Akzo under the tradename KETJENLUBE 12 (a pentaerythritol tetradecyl/dodecylester having a statistical C.sub.10 /C.sub.12 -distribution), and from Henkel AG under the tradename EDENOR Ke 230 (a pentaerythritol tetraisopalmitic acid ester) and pentaerythritol tetraisostearic acid ester.

Examples for suitable pentaerythritol esters are pentaerythritol monohexylester, pentaerythritol monooctylester, pentaerythritol monononylester, pentaerythritol monodecylester, pentaerythritol monododecylester, pentaerythritol-monomyristylester, pentaerythritol monohexadecylester, pentaerythritol monostearyl ester, pentaerythritol mono-oleylester, pentaerythritol monoisostearyl- and -isopalmitic acid ester; the corresponding dihexyl-, dioctyl-, dinonyl-, didecyl-, didodecyl-, dimyristyl-, dihexadecyl-, distearyl-, dioleyl-, diisostearyl- and diisopalmitic acid esters of pentaerythritol; the corresponding trihexyl-, trioctyl-, trinonyl-, tridecyl-, tridodecyl-, trimyristyl-, trihexadecyl-, tristearyl-, trioleyl-, triisostearyl- and triisopalmitic acid esters of pentaerythritol as well as the corresponding tetrahexyl-, tetraoctyl-, tetranonyl-, tetradecyl-, tetradodecyl-, tetramyristyl-, tetrahexadexyl-, tetrastearyl-, tetraoleyl-, tetraisostearyl- and tetraisopalmitic acid esters of pentaerythritol.









b) Pentaerythritol telomeric acid derivatives having the following skeleton: ##STR2## wherein T is telomer R is T or alkyl.

The telomeric acids are compounds having a relatively high molecular weight and having long-chained star-like branched structures which can be esterified in the usual manner and the esters thereof are valuable lubricants (commercial product Kortacid T of Akzo Chemistry).

Mineral oils which can be used according to the invention are all usual mineral oils ranging from the isoparaffin oil having a viscosity of 1,0 mPa.s at 20.degree. C. over thin spindle oil having a viscosity of 12 mPa.s at 20.degree. C. to the high viscous brightstock and cylinder oil having a viscosity of 540 mPa.s at 50.degree. C.

Many of the synthetic oils usable according to the invention are commercially available, f.i. from BP Co. under the tradename "HYVIS 10" (a polyisobutylene having a viscosity of 200 mP.a at 100.degree. C.) "HYVIS 200" (a polyisobutylene having a viscosity of 4300 mPa.s at 100.degree. C.) and "HYVIS 2000" (a polyisobutylene having a viscosity of 43 000 mPa.s at 100.degree. C.). VISCOPLEX 4-95 of Rohm Co. (a polymethacrylate) having a viscosity of 1000 mPa.s at 100.degree. C., UCOLUB N9 having a viscosity of 5,7 mPa.s at 100.degree. C., UCOLUB N36A having a viscosity of 5,7 mPa.s at 100..degree. C., UCOLUB N36A having a viscosity of 18 mPa.s at 100.degree. C., UCOLUB N120A having a viscosity of 55 mPa.s at 100.degree. C. (these all are water insoluble polyglycols) of Union Carbide Co. as well as "ISOPAR J" of Esso Co. (an isoparaffin oil) having a viscosity of 1,0 mPa.s at 20.degree. C.

The phosphor containing substances which can be used according to the invention are organophosphorus compounds of the formula ##STR3## wherein R each is a straight or branched or cyclic alkyl group having 6 to 12 carbon atoms or a phenyl group substituted in o- or p-position by a lower alkyl group having 1 to 6 carbon atoms.

Preferred examples of the organophosphorus compounds having the above formula are monodecyl-diphenylphosphite, didecylphenylphosphite, triphenylphosphite, dioctyl-phenyl-phosphite, dihexyl-phenyl-phosphite, diisodecyl-phenyl-phosphite, diisooctyl-phenyl-phosphite, didecyl-o-methyl-phenylphosphite and didecyl-p-methylphenylphosphite.

The metaldialkyldithiocarbamates which can be used according to the invention as sulfur containing substance are compounds of the formula ##STR4## wherein Me is a metal selected from the group copper (Cu), silver (Ag), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), tantalum (Ta), antimony (Sb), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni), preferably boron (B), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co) or molybdenum (Mo). Me can also be substituted with a non-metal such as boron (B).

The metaldialkyldithiophosphates which can be used according to the invention as sulfur containing substance as well as phosphorus containing substance are compounds of the formula ##STR5## wherein Me is a metal selected from the group copper (Cu), silver (Ag), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), tantalum (Ta), antimony (Sb), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), . tungsten (W), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni), preferably Zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W) and manganese (Mn). Me can also be substituted with a non-metal such as boron (B).

The alkyl groups of the above-mentioned metaldialkyldithiocarbamates and metaldialkyldithiophosphates each preferably contain 4 to 8 carbon atoms, so that the named metal salts are still soluble in the commercially available base oils. Examples of the particularly advantageous alkyl groups are the n-, i- and tert-butyl group, the n- and i-amyl groups, the n- and i-hexyl group, the n- and i-heptyl group and the 2-ethylhexyl group. Especially preferred are the i-butyl group, the n- and i-amyl group and the 2-ethylhexyl group. Examples for metal dialkyldithiocarbamates which can advantageously be used according to the invention are the following: copper-dialkyldithiocarbamate and copper-bis-dialkyldithiocarbamate, silver-dialkyldithiocarbamate, zinc- and cadmium-bis-dialkyldithiocarbamates, borontrisdialkyldithiocarbomates, titanium-, zirconium-, tin- and lead-tetrakisdialkyldithiocarbamates, as well as tin- and lead-bis-dialkyldithiocarbamates, antimony-, vanadium-, tantalum-tris-dialkyldithiocarbamates, -tetrakis-, and -pentakisdialkyldithiocarbamates, as well as the dialkyldithiocarbamates in which these metals are present in mixed degrees of oxidation; chromium-bis-, chromium-tris-, chromium-tetrakis-, and chromium-hexakisdialkyl-thiocarbamates, molybdenum-, and tungsten-tetrakis-, -hexakis-, and -oxybis- and -oxytetrakisdialkyldithiocarbamates, manganese-bis-, -tris-, -tetrakis- and -hexakisdialkyldithicarbamates, and cobalt- and nickel-bis- and -trisdialkyldithiocarbamates.

Among these compounds boron-trisdialkyldithiocarbamates, nickel-trisdialkyldithiocarbamates, molybdenum- tetrakis- and molybdenum-oxytetrakisdialkyldithiocarbamates, manganese-, vanadium-, and tungsten-tetrakisdialkyldithiocarbamates are particularly preferred.

Metal dialkyldithiophosphates which can advantageously be used according to the invention are dialkyldithiophosphates of the same metals in the same degrees of oxidation as listed above for the metal dialkyldithiocarbamates.

Particularly advantageous are zinc-bisdialkyldithiophosphates, nickel-bis- and -trisdialkyldithiophosphates, titanium- and vanadium-tetrakisdialkyldithio phosphates, molybdenum- and tungsten-tetrakisdialkyldithiophosphates and molybdenum- and tungsten-oxy-tetrakisdialkyldithiophosphates. Particularly preferred representatives of the metal dialkyldithiocarbamates used according to the invention are: boron-trisdiisobutyldithiocarbamate, boron-trisdi-2-ethylhexyldithiocarbamate, nickel-trisdiisobutyldithiocarbamate, nickel-trisdiamyldithiocarbamate, nickel-trisdi-2-ethylhexyldithiocarbamate, molybdenum-oxytetrakisdi-2-ethylhexyldithiocarbamate, manganese-, vanadium- and tungsten-tetrakis-2-ethylhexyldithiocarbamate, as well as cobalt-bis-diisobutyldithiocarbamate.

Particularly preferred representatives of the metal dialkyldithiophosphates used according to the invention are zinc-bis-di-2-ethylhexyldithiophosphate, nickel-bis- and -trisdi-2-ethyl-hexyldithiophosphate, manganese-, titanium- and vanadium-tetrakisdi-2-ethylhexyldithiophosphate, as well as molybdenum-and tungsten-tetrakis- end molybdenum-and tungsten-oxytetrakisdi-2-ethylhexyldithiophosphate.

The invention will be explained in more detail using the following examples, however it is not restricted thereto.

In the following examples commercially available lubricating oils and lubricating fats, respectively, were used having the following composition and they were compared in regard to their lubricating properties which on the one hand contained the lubricant concentrate of the invention and on the other hand without containing it.

The results obtained in each example are depicted graphically in the diagrams.

For carrying out of the tests a circular plate of refined steel with a diameter of 23 mm and a thickness of 10 mm was used, to the surface of which a drop of each lubricant or lubricant concentrate to be tested was applied. Onto the area where the drop of the lubricant or lubricant concentrate was located a ball made of the same refined steel with a diameter of 10 mm was applied, which on account of its load exerted a pressure onto the surface of the metal plate. The metal ball was moved to and fro on the surface of the metal plate with a frequency of 50 Hz over an amplitude of 1 mm for 60 to 180 minutes under pressure, whereby during the test the load within the range was varied from 50 to 300N and the temperature was varied from 50.degree. to 150.degree. C. (SRV (swing-friction-wear) apparatus which is sold world-wide by the firm Optimol GmbH).

The wear-profile produced on account of the friction between the loaded ball and the surface of the metal plate within the testing period diagonal to the oscillation direction of the ball was recorded by means of a suitable recording apparatus, whereby the below given diagrams were obtained, in which on the ordinate, the height of wear is plotted as difference between the highest and lowest point of the surface profile of the metal plate, against the scanning span of the surface of the metal plate on the abscissa.

In the below diagrams a depth of profile on the ordinate of 1 cm corresponds to a real depth of profile on the surface of the metal plate of 1 .mu.m, whereas in the diagram B' of example 2 the scanner was so damped that a depth of profile of 1 cm on the diagram corresponds to a real depth of profile on the surface of the plate of 2,5 .mu.m.

The diagrams were recorded under identical conditions (load of the ball 50 to 300N, friction frequency 50 Hz, temperature 50.degree. to 150.degree. C. friction amplitude 1 mm testing time 1 to 3 hours).

The friction coefficients indicated below the diagrams (R.sub.k max=maximum friction coefficient; R.sub.k d=average friction coefficient over 98% of the friction coefficient curve) were also determined by using the above described SRV apparatus. In all tests where not stated otherwise as lubricant concentrate of the invention a product having the following composition was used:

50% C.sub.10 -C.sub.18 -pentaerythritolester having a quaternary, carbon atom

20 % copolymer of .alpha.-olefin esters

9,5 % trimethyladipic acid didecylester

2,5 % dialkylarylphosphite

9% metaldialkyldithiophosphate/metaldialkyldithiocarbamate

7% thiazole derivative

2% sterically hindered phenol as oxidation inhibitor

Example 1

A high viscous lubricating oil having a viscosity of 2200 mPa.s at 50.degree. C. and having the following composition was prepared and tested:

    ______________________________________
    trimethyladipic acid didecylester
                            34%
    polyisobutylene (43000 mPa .multidot. s/100.degree. C.)
                            32%
    lubricant-entraining substance
                            6%
    lubricant concentrate of the invention
                            28%
    ______________________________________


In the comparative product the lubricant concentrate of the invention was omitted.

Both products were tested for 1 h at a temperature of 50.degree. C. and a load of 200N under identical conditions. The obtained results are graphically depicted in FIG. 1A (for lubricant A according to the invention) and FIG. 1B (for lubricant A' according to the state of art).

                  TABLE 1
    ______________________________________
    Data Derived from the Wear Profile of FIGS. IA and 1B
                Lubricant A
                        Lubricant A'
    ______________________________________
    R.sub.K max   0.112     0.145
    R.sub.K d     0.047     0.088
    ______________________________________


The addition of the lubricant concentrate of the invention led to a depth of profile of 0,80 .mu.m (average of two determinations). Without the addition of the lubricant concentrate of the invention a depth of profile of 1,68 .mu.m average of two determinations) was obtained.

Example 2

An intermediate viscous lubricating oil having a viscosity of 190 to 200 mPa.s at 50.degree. C. and having the following composition was prepared and tested:

    ______________________________________
    Polymeric .alpha.-olefin esters
                            12%
    Trimethyladipic acid didecylester
                            36%
    polyisobutylene (43000 mPa .multidot. S/100.degree. C.)
                            18%
    lubricant-entraining substance
                             6%
    lubricant concentrate of the invention
                            28%
    ______________________________________


In the comparative product the lubricant concentrate of the invention was omitted.

Both products were tested for 1 h at a temperature of 150.degree. C. and a load of 200N under identical conditions. The obtained results are graphically depicted in FIG. 2A (for lubricant B according to the invention) and FIG. 2B for lubricant B' according to the state of art).

                  TABLE 2
    ______________________________________
    Data Derived from the Wear Profile of FIGS. 2A and 2B
                Lubricant B
                        Lubricant B'
    ______________________________________
    R.sub.K max   0.133     0.128
    R.sub.K d     0.050     0.098
    ______________________________________


The addition of the lubricant concentrate of the invention led to a depth of profile of 0,875 .mu.m (average of two determinations). Without the addition of the lubricant concentrate of the invention a depth of profile of 13,98 .mu.m (average of two determinations) was obtained.

Example 3

An intermediate viscous lubricating oil having a viscosity of 120 to 150 mPa.s at 50.degree. C. and having the following composition was prepared and tested:

    ______________________________________
    high viscous .alpha.-olefin ester copolymer
                             4%
    intermediate viscous .alpha.-olefin ester polymer
                            12%
    trimethyladipic acid didecylester
                            34%
    polyisobutylene (200 mPa .multidot. s/100.degree. C.)
                            12%
    lubricant-entraining substance
                             6%
    lubricant-concentrate of the invention
                            32%
    ______________________________________


In the comparative product the lubricant concentrate of the invention was omitted.

Both products were tested for 1 h at a temperature of 150.degree. C. and a load of 200N under identical conditions. The obtained results are graphically depicted in the FIG. 3A (for lubricant C according to the invention) and FIG. 3B (for lubricant C' according to the state of art) .

                  TABLE 3
    ______________________________________
    Data Derived from the Wear Profile of FIGS. 3A and 3B
                Lubricant C
                        Lubricant C'
    ______________________________________
    R.sub.K max   0.112     0.148
    R.sub.K d     0.047     0.135
    ______________________________________


The addition of the lubricant concentrate of the invention led to a depth of profile of 1,12 .mu.m (average of two determinations). Without the addition of the lubricant concentrate of the invention a depth of profile of 3,48 .mu.m (average of two determinations) was obtained.

Example 4

A high viscous adhering and high temperature lubricating oil having a viscosity of 15 000 mPa.s at 50.degree. C. and having the following composition was prepared and tested:

    ______________________________________
    trimethyladipic acid didecylester
                            29%
    polyisobutylene (43000 mPa .multidot. s/100.degree. C.)
                            52%
    lubricant concentrate of the invention
                            19%
    ______________________________________


In the comparative product the lubricant concentrate of the invention was omitted.

Both products were tested for 1 h at a temperature of 150.degree. C. and a load of 200N under identical conditions. The obtained results are graphically depicted in FIG. 4A (for lubricant D according to the invention) and FIG. 4B (for lubricant D' according to the state of art).

                  TABLE 4
    ______________________________________
    Data Derived from the Wear Profile of FIGS. 4A and 4B
                Lubricant D
                        Lubricant D'
    ______________________________________
    R.sub.K max   0.123     0.121
    R.sub.K d     0.052     0.084
    ______________________________________


The addition of the lubricant concentrate of the invention led to a depth of profile of 0,80 .mu.m (average of three determinations). Without the addition of the lubricant concentrate of the invention a depth of profile of 1,57 .mu.m (average of two determinations) was obtained.

Example 5

A high duty gear oil SAE 85/90 was tested with and without the additive of the invention consisting of 10% by weight of monopentaerythritol tetraester.

Both products were tested for 1 h at a temperature of 90.degree. C. and a load of 200N under identical conditions. The obtained results are graphically depicted in FIG. 5A (for lubricant E according to the invention) and FIG. 5B (for lubricant E' according to the state of art).

                  TABLE 5
    ______________________________________
    Data Derived from the Wear Profile of FIGS. 5A and 5B
                Lubricant E
                        Lubricant E'
    R.sub.K max   0.123     0.112
    R.sub.K d     0.081     0.085
    ______________________________________


The addition of the additive of the invention led to a depth of profile of 0,85 .mu.m (average of two determinations). Without the addition of the additive of the invention a depth of profile of 1,02 .mu.m (average of two determinations) was obtained.

Example 6

A lubricating fat for multi-purpose lubrication for high duty gears and synchronizing joints having the following composition was prepared and tested:

    ______________________________________
    mineral oil            70%
    consistency improving agent on lithium-
                            9%
    stearate basis
    lubricant concentrate of the invention
                           21%
    ______________________________________


In the comparative product the lubricant concentrate of the invention was replaced by 3% by weight of a molybdenum disulfide/graphite mixture.

Both products were tested for 3 h at a temperature of 50.degree. C. and a load of 300N under identical conditions. The obtained results are graphically depicted in the following FIG. 6A (for lubricant F according to the invention) and FIG. 6B (for lubricant F' according to the state of art).

                  TABLE 6
    ______________________________________
    Data Derived from the Wear Profile of FIGS. 6A and 6B
                Lubricant F
                        Lubricant F'
    ______________________________________
    R.sub.K max   0.176     0.177
    R.sub.K d     0.095     0.150
    ______________________________________


The addition of the lubricant concentrate of the invention led to a depth of profile of 0,95 .mu.m (average of three determinations), while the addition of the comparative additive mixture led a depth of profile of 1,63 .mu.m (average of three determinations).

While the invention was explained above in more detail referring to preferred specific embodiments, it is however obvious that it is not restricted thereto, but that it can be altered and modified in many respects in a manner obvious to the expert, without going beyond the scope of the present invention.

Actuator and actuator system

Portable foldable splint

Fuel system for multicylinder engines

Thermosensitive recording sheet

Multipurpose exercising apparatus

Movement detector

Froth flotation

Railcar straddle for material handling

Signal amplifier

Polysaccharides and preparation thereof

Ice body delivery apparatus

Golf club stand device

Seal press

Tricyclic amides

Drum construction

Plain bearing

Stacker bundler shuttle system

Liquid container

Dual chamber water filter

Drain-extended MOS ESD protection structure

Fast circuit switching system

Decoupled integrated circuit package

Aqueous coating composition

Variable delivery compressor

Flash jet coolant circulation system

Printer control system

Workpiece feeding-ejection mechanism

Method for preparing microemulsions

Flash memory device

Brake pressure control valve

Electromechanical preparation of photoengraving cylinders

Modular nuclear fuel assembly design

Environmentally stable monolithic Mach-Zehnder device

Arrangement for moving an object

Ion-channel forming peptides

Collapsible wheelbarrow

Glass compositions

Manual floor sweeper

Method for purifying acetone

Sulfonium salt compounds

Facsimile compression for transmission

Perfusive chromatography

Compact and robust spectrograph

Wheelchair motorizing apparatus

Master cylinder apparatus

Automated nut-cracking apparatus and method

High temperature diesel deposit tester

Oxide-superconduction grain boundary tunneling device

Terminal grounding unit

Flexible chain conveyor

Cotton gin control

Aerobic exercise device

Process for decoking catalysts

Multiple unit cigarette package

Method of fabricating electronic circuits

Expandable tire building former

Endoscope signal level control

Probing with backside emission microscopy

Support for a torch

Imidazodiazepine derivative

Valve timing adjusting device

Control means for ground hydrants

Golf putt training apparatus

Three dimensional space viewing device

Automatic reversal mechanism

Hollow fiber separatory device

Method of preparing ferroelectric ceramics

Splash guard

Polishing apparatus

Neck towel and adjustable clasp

Naso-gastric tube retainer

Isothiazole and isoxazole sulphoxides

Impact-resisting composites

Hard surface detergent composition

Pulse width modulation operation circuit

Optical fiber strain relief device

Lithography process

Method of treating melanoma

Tissue anchoring system and method